现在的位置: 首页时讯速递, 进展交流>正文
[JAMA在线发表]:2020年3月至7月新冠病毒感染及其他原因引起的过度死亡
2020年11月25日 时讯速递, 进展交流 暂无评论

Research Letter October 12, 2020

Excess Deaths From COVID-19 and Other Causes, March-July 2020

Steven H. Woolf, Derek A. Chapman, Roy T. Sabo, et al

JAMA Published online October 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.19545

Previous studies of excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic found that publicly reported COVID-19 deaths underestimated the full death toll, which includes documented and undocumented deaths from the virus and non–COVID-19 deaths caused by disruptions from the pandemic.1,2 A previous analysis found that COVID-19 was cited in only 65% of excess deaths in the first weeks of the pandemic (March-April 2020); deaths from non–COVID-19 causes (eg, Alzheimer disease, diabetes, heart disease) increased sharply in 5 states with the most COVID-19 deaths.1 This study updates through August 1, 2020, the estimate of excess deaths and explores temporal relationships with state reopenings (lifting of coronavirus restrictions).

Methods

Death data for 2014-2020 and population counts for the 50 states and the District of Columbia were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics3,4 and US Census Bureau,5 respectively. Death counts from March 1, 2020, through August 1, 2020, were taken from provisional, unweighted data released on September 9, 2020.3 Connecticut and North Carolina were excluded due to missing data. A hierarchical Poisson regression model, described elsewhere,1 was used to predict expected deaths based on historic norms. COVID-19 deaths included those in which COVID-19 was cited as an underlying or contributing cause. Data for deaths not attributed to COVID-19 were only available for underlying causes of death, including Alzheimer disease, heart disease, and 10 other grouped causes, defined elsewhere.1 Reopening dates were obtained from the New York Times.6

To confirm the validity of observed increases in non–COVID-19 deaths, the Joinpoint regression program (version 4.8.0.1; Statistical Research and Applications Branch, National Cancer Institute) was used to specify the weeks (joinpoints) when slopes changed (as measured by the annual percentage change [APC]) and their statistical significance (2-sided test, .05 threshold). To estimate dispersion in the epidemic curve for each state, the number of consecutive weeks during which 90% of excess deaths occurred (ED90) was calculated. All calculations were performed in SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute) and R (version 3.6.1; The R Foundation).

Results

Between March 1 and August 1, 2020, 1 336 561 deaths occurred in the US, a 20% increase over expected deaths (1 111 031 [95% CI, 1 110 364 to 1 111 697]). The 10 states with the highest per capita rate of excess deaths were New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Louisiana, Arizona, Mississippi, Maryland, Delaware, Rhode Island, and Michigan. The states with the highest per capita rate of excess deaths changed from week to week (Video). The increase in absolute deaths in these states relative to expected values ranged from 22% in Rhode Island and Michigan to 65% in New York (Table). Three states with the highest death rates (New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts) accounted for 30% of US excess deaths but had the shortest epidemics (ED90 < 10 weeks). States that experienced acute surges in April (and reopened later) had shorter epidemics that returned to baseline in May, whereas states that reopened earlier experienced more protracted increases in excess deaths that extended into the summer (Figure).

Of the 225 530 excess deaths, 150 541 (67%) were attributed to COVID-19. Joinpoint analyses revealed an increase in deaths attributed to causes other than COVID-19, with 2 reaching statistical significance. US mortality rates for heart disease increased between weeks ending March 21 and April 11 (APC, 5.1 [95% CI, 0.2-10.2]), driven by the spring surge in COVID-19 cases. Mortality rates for Alzheimer disease/dementia increased twice, between weeks ending March 21 and April 11 (APC, 7.3 [95% CI, 2.9-11.8]) and between weeks ending June 6 and July 25 (APC, 1.5 [95% CI, 0.8-2.3]), the latter coinciding with the summer surge in sunbelt states.

Discussion

Although total US death counts are remarkably consistent from year to year, US deaths increased by 20% during March-July 2020. COVID-19 was a documented cause of only 67% of these excess deaths. Some states had greater difficulty than others in containing community spread, causing protracted elevations in excess deaths that extended into the summer. US deaths attributed to some noninfectious causes increased during COVID-19 surges. Excess deaths attributed to causes other than COVID-19 could reflect deaths from unrecognized or undocumented infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or deaths among uninfected patients resulting from disruptions produced by the pandemic. Study limitations include the reliance on provisional data, inaccuracies in death certificates, and assumptions applied to the model.

给我留言

您必须 [ 登录 ] 才能发表留言!

×
腾讯微博