现在的位置: 首页时讯速递, 进展交流>正文
美国CDC声称,因流感住院患者比例达历史新高
2018年02月08日 时讯速递, 进展交流 评论数 1

Influenza Hospitalizations Highest on Record, CDC Says

Troy Brown, RN

February 02, 2018

Overall hospitalizations for influenza-like illness (ILI) are at their highest since the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began collecting such data, according to new information presented during a teleconference by the CDC today.

根据今天CDC在新闻发布会上提供的最新信息,流感样病例(ILI)住院总数达到自从美国CDC开始收集此类数据以来的新高。

"In the past week, we have seen increased [ILI] activity, more hospitalizations, and tragically, more flu-associated deaths in children and adults," Anne Schuchat, MD, RADM, USPHS, and acting director, CDC, said. "As of this week, overall hospitalizations are now the highest we've seen, even higher than in 2014-2015, our previous high season."

“在过去一周,我们观察到ILI活动增强,更多患者住院,而且更多儿童与成人发生流感相关死亡,”CDC执行主任Anne Schuchat说到。“时至本周,住院患者总数是迄今为止最高的,甚至超过了既往最高的流感季节2014-2015年。”

Reports of crowded hospitals and spot shortages of antiviral drugs and rapid influenza tests continue. "Unfortunately, our latest tracking data indicate that flu activity is still high and widespread across most of the nation," Dr Schuchat added.

报告持续不断地宣称医院拥挤不堪,抗病毒药物和流感快速检验试剂缺乏。“不幸的是,我们最新的追踪数据提示,流感活性仍居高位,而且播散到全国大多数地区。”Schuchat医生说到。

Unusual Pattern 不寻常的状况

""[T]his season is turning out to be a particularly challenging one, and it has been compounded by lots of flu occurring nationwide simultaneously over several weeks," said Dan Jernigan, MD, MPH, CAPT, USPHS, director, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "This is an unusual pattern for flu in the [United States]."

“这个流感季节看来极富挑战,数周内全国各地同时发生很多流感,”国立免疫和呼吸道疾病中心流感部门主管Dan Jernigan医生说到。“这在美国是一个不寻常的状况。”

For the 3 weeks prior to the current week, influenza activity was widespread in 49 states — something that has not occurred since the CDC began collecting influenza activity data. That number fell to 48 states this week, with Oregon and Hawaii reporting decreased activity.

本周前的三个星期内,流感已经拨散到49个州—自从CDC开始收集流感活动数据以来这是从未有过的情况。本周这一数字下降到48个州,俄勒冈和夏威夷报告流感活动减弱。

The percentage of patients seen in physicians' offices, urgent care clinics, and emergency departments for ILI increased again this week, going from 6.6% last week to 7.1% this week. For two seasons during the past 16 years rates, have been higher than that — the 2009 H1N1 pandemic peaked at 7.7%, and the 2003-2004 season, which was a high-severity H3N2 season, peaked at 7.6%, Dr Jernigan explained.

本周到医生诊所和急诊就诊的ILI患者比例再度上升,从上周的6.6%升高到本周的7.1%。在过去16年间,仅有2个季节的数据超过上述数字—即2009 H1N1暴发流行时最高的7.7%,以及2003-2004年度(极为严重的H3N2季节)的7.6%,Jernigan医生解释到。

The level of ILI activity has been elevated for 10 consecutive weeks. During the past five seasons, the average duration of an influenza season has been 16 weeks, ranging from 11 to 20 weeks. "There may be many weeks left for this season to go," Dr Jernigan said.

ILI活动度已连续10周持续升高。在过去5个流感季节中,流感季的平均持续时间为16周,范围从11到20周。“所以,本流感季可能还要持续数周,”Jernigan医生补充到。

The number of states that reported high ILI activity this week rose from 39 to 42. In the western states, activity is starting to decrease, the eastern part of the country is seeing higher activity, and southern states continue to report high activity, with levels similar to those of previous weeks.

本周报告高流感活性的州从39个增加到42个。在西部各州,流感活性已经开始减弱,而东部各州的流感活性尚处于升高阶段,南部各州继续报告高活性,与既往数周的数据相似。

"For the second week in a row, there are signs that activity in the West may be easing up. However, we are by no means out of the woods. Most seasons last up to 20 weeks, and we've probably got several weeks left of increased flu activity," Dr Schuchat explained.

Schuchat医生解释到:“西部各州已经连续两周显示流感活性减弱的趋势。然而,我们尚未摆脱困境。多数流感季持续长达20周,因此,流感活性升高可能还要持续数周。”

High-Severity Season 病情严重的流感季

The CDC collects information about laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in 13 states, which represent a population of approximately 9% of the United States. During the past few weeks, hospitalizations have tracked closely with the 2014-2015 season, which was described as representing high severity, with an estimated 710,000 hospitalizations during the season.

CDC在13个州收集实验室确诊的流感住院患者情况—这13个州的人口大约相当于美国总人口的9%。在过去数周内,住院患者情况与2014-2015流感季极为接近。2014-2015是病情最为严重的流感季,估计当时共有710000名流感住院患者。

The CDC reports that for this week, the cumulative hospitalization rate was 51.4 per 100,000, which is higher than the 43.5 per 100,000 reported at this same week during the 2014-2015 season. If that trend continues through the season, the number of influenza hospitalizations may exceed 710,000. The highest hospitalization rates are among those aged 65 years and older, followed by individuals aged 50 to 64 years and children younger than 5 years.

据CDC报告,时至本周,流感累计住院率为每100,000人51.4例,超过了2014-2015流感季相同时间的每100,000人43.5例。如果这一趋势持续到本流感季结束,流感住院患者数可能超过710,000。65岁以上老人住院率最高,其次是50-64岁以及年龄5岁以下的儿童。

Hospitalization rates continue to be significantly higher in some states. Although rates were lower during the past week, cumulative hospitalization rates in California were approximately four times higher than during 2014-2015, and rates were double for that period in Oregon and Minnesota.

在一些州,流感住院率持续升高。尽管上周住院率稍低,但加州累计住院率约为2014-2015流感季的4倍,俄勒冈和明尼苏达州的住院率大约为2014-2015流感季的2倍。

In adults, the number of deaths from pneumonia and influenza also increased during the past week, from 9.1% to 9.7%. "This is not as high as during seasons 2012-2013 and 2014-2015, where they peaked at 11.1% and 10.8%, but it is possible that this season will reach or surpass those two severe seasons," Dr Jernigan said.

在成人,因肺炎和流感死亡的人数上周也有增加,从9.1%升高到9.7%。“这一数字低于2012-2013和2014-2015流感季,那时分别为11.1%和10.8%,但本流感季很可能要超过既往数个流感季。”Jernigan医生谈到。

Most (76%) of the 45,000 respiratory specimens tested in state public health laboratories this season are influenza A (H3N2), although influenza A (H1N1) and influenza B viruses are also circulating.

本季公共卫生实验室检验的45000例呼吸道标本中多数(76%)为甲型流感(H3N2),尽管也检测到甲型流感H1N1和乙型流感病毒。

Among H3N2 viruses evaluated by the CDC and five other World Health Organization–designated laboratories, there is no evidence that the virus has significantly drifted; however, viruses that have been prepared for use in vaccines "have adaptations that make them less similar to the circulating H3N2 viruses," Dr Jernigan explained.

在CDC以及其他5个WHO指定实验室中检测到的H3N2病毒中,尚无证据显示病毒发生明显漂移;然而,疫苗中准备使用的病毒“发生了适应性改变,使得它们与流行的H3N2病毒不那么相似,”Jernigan医生解释到。

Children Particularly Hard-hit 儿童尤其容易患病

Pediatric deaths from influenza are the highest since 2014-2015. An additional 16 influenza-related pediatric deaths were reported this week, totaling 53 children this season.

因流感死亡的儿童是2014-2015流感季以来最多的。本周报告了16例儿童因流感相关死亡,使得本流感季死亡儿童总数达到53例。

Of the children who died from influenza, only about 20% were vaccinated, and half were otherwise healthy.

在因流感死亡的儿童中,仅有20%接受疫苗接种,半数既往健康。

Hospitalizations among children are tracking lower than during the 2014-2015 season, although it is too soon to know how many such hospitalizations will occur by the end of the season.

儿童住院率低于2014-2015流感季,尽管了解至本流感季结束时住院儿童总数为时尚早。

Dr Schuchat urged parents of children to call their primary care provider or a nurse hotline before taking their child to the doctor or emergency department. "In general, worrisome signs are very high, persisting fever, difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat or shallow, rapid breathing, or significant tiredness or confusion. In very young children, those kinds of symptoms are going to be difficult to assess, and so we really do think that a call to the pediatrician or nurse hotline is very important," she explained.

Schucha医生要求父母在带孩子去门诊或急诊就诊前致电全科医生或护士热线。“总之,令人担忧的表现包括持续高热,呼吸困难,心率快,呼吸浅快,非常劳累或意识障碍。对于非常小的孩子,上述症状可能难以评估,所以我们认为致电儿科医生或护士热线非常重要。”她解释到。

When seeking medical care at the clinic or hospital, parents should cover the child's mouth with a mask if the child is coughing.

在门诊或医院就诊时,如果孩子咳嗽,父母应当给孩子佩戴口罩。

A red flag for children and adults alike is an individual's showing signs of improvement, and then suddenly becoming worse. That can indicate the development of a secondary bacterial pneumonia, which could be a "bad emergency," Dr Schuchat said.

对儿童以及成人而言,需要引起注意的是病情在有所改善后迅速恶化。这可能提示发生了继发性细菌性肺炎,是“非常不好的紧急情况,”Schuchat医生说到。

Concerns About Flu Shot Effectiveness This Year 有关今年流感疫苗效果的疑虑

There are ongoing concerns about the vaccine's effectiveness.

有关疫苗效果的疑虑一直存在。

Dr Schuchat said the CDC is concerned that the current vaccine's effectiveness against H3N2 viruses "is lower than against other types and that in recent years, it's been more challenging to even get effective H3N2 protection," she explained.

Schuchat医生说到,目前疫苗对于H3N2病毒的预防效果“不如其他种类的流感病毒,同时也不如既往年份,得到有效的H3N2保护更为困难,”对此,CDC也深感忧虑。

She said the CDC recommends the influenza vaccine, "even though we know that most vaccines have low effectiveness against H3N2 viruses." Effectiveness is better against other influenza viruses, and there is more than one circulating influenza virus. The vaccine may also reduce the severity of symptoms in those who develop influenza. It is not too late to get vaccinated, she added.

她说到,CDC建议进行流感疫苗接种,“即使我们知道多数疫苗对H3N2病毒的效果较差。”疫苗对于其他流感病毒预防效果更佳,而且流行的流感病毒有多种。疫苗还可能减轻流感患者的临床症状。她补充到,接受疫苗接种永远不会太晚。

Bacterial pneumonia can be a serious complication of influenza, and viral infections such as influenza can make individuals more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Individuals who appear to be getting better and suddenly worsen should seek medical attention.

细菌性肺炎是流感的严重并发症,病毒感染(如流感)可以使得患者对继发性细菌性肺炎更加易感。最初病情改善但迅速恶化的患者应当就诊。

Pneumococcal pneumonia is a common culprit in secondary bacterial pneumonias, and the CDC recommends vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia for those aged 65 years and older.

肺炎链球菌肺炎是最常见的继发性细菌性肺炎,CDC建议65岁以上老人接种针对肺炎球菌肺炎的疫苗。

目前有 1 条留言 其中:访客:1 条, 博主:0 条

  1. 00361yjd : 2018年02月10日14:32:29  -49楼

    最近接诊流感病例,总感觉部分环节麻痹了些,应该思索!学习啦!

给我留言

您必须 [ 登录 ] 才能发表留言!

×
腾讯微博